Frequently Asked Questions: Competencies

  • Q: What are NIH plans for implementing competencies?


    Suggested competency models have been created for common occupations across NIH. These competency models are available as an example of what knowledge, skills, abilities and behaviors are needed for each position. Employees and supervisors can use the competencies dictionary to identify the competencies that are needed for success in a specific position. Managers can use competencies to help identify skills needed in prospective job applicants.

  • Q: What is the relationship between performance and competencies?


    The relationship between competencies and performance is indirect. As employees increase their proficiency levels, their performance outputs would generally be expected to improve. Organizations whose employees have high proficiency levels are organizations that would be expected to have superior organizational performance. However, this is not always the case. An individual may possess the required knowledge, skills, abilities, and behaviors but may be performing at a lower level than expected due to various factors, e.g., personal problems, lack of focus, job dissatisfaction, negative reaction to organizational change, lack of organizational resources, etc.

    Employees are rated on performance in relation to how well they have accomplished the tasks set out in their performance plans. Performance plans establish specific tasks and expectations for various positions and employee grade levels and this is the basis for performance evaluation.

  • Q: What if there are other competencies that are relevant for my job but are not included in the models?


    The NIH occupational models describe the global competencies required for all employees in a specific occupation. The occupational models do not describe every competency relevant to a job. If there are other competencies important to your specific job/role, you should discuss them with your supervisor and determine the best approach for incorporating them into your overall career development plan.

  • Q: How do NIH and HHS competencies relate to each other?


    HHS competency models were reviewed during the development process of NIH competency models. The two models are compatible. Although there are differences in some of the names of the competencies and key behaviors, the NIH competencies incorporate the knowledge, skills, and abilities (KSAs) described in the HHS competencies.

  • Q: Why are competencies useful to employees?


    Competencies help employees to:

    • understand the competencies expected in their job, the key behaviors they should demonstrate, and the steps needed to increase their proficiency levels
    • discuss with their supervisors the employee’s strengths, areas for growth, and suggested training, and developmental activities
    • focus on specific training and development opportunities that will help them grow and strive for excellence
    • understand the competencies they would be expected to have to move into a new job, particularly for employees who are interested in becoming supervisors and managers or in changing careers
  • Q: Why are competencies useful to supervisors?


    Competencies help supervisors to better:

    • screen prospective employees during the hiring process, which results in better hiring decisions
    • discuss with employees their strengths, areas for growth, training, and developmental activities
    • distribute work more efficiently by using the knowledge of employees’ proficiency levels
    • acquire training and development opportunities systematically and efficiently, e.g., develop training partnerships between organizations, bringing tailored training to employees, etc.
    • determine what type of skill sets are needed in the future, which helps support succession planning
  • Q: Why are competencies important to ICs?


    ICs can systematically identify their competency gaps in occupational areas. In turn, this can lead to more focused hiring decisions and succession planning, better strategic assignment (alignment) of tasks and functions; and cost-effective training that is tailored for employees who have common needs.

  • Q: Why is NIH developing competencies?


    NIH is investing in competencies to improve: 1. recruitment and hiring; 2. career development of NIH employees; and 3. strategic organizational planning. One goal is to develop vacancy announcements that more clearly state the competencies that NIH expects employees to possess. Competency development is also essential to developing behavioral-based interview guides, which in turn will allow hiring officials to better select talent from a pool of job candidates. Overall, the use of competencies will result in better recruitment of talent that will improve the quality of the NIH workforce. Developing competency based tools will also support the career development of NIH employees. Assessment tools highlight the areas in which employees are most proficient and areas in which they can focus developmental activities. The competency training maps help employees choose training that will help them develop. Finally, managers and supervisors who understand the competency gaps within their organizations will be able to strategically address these gaps.

  • Q: How have competencies been used by other organizations?


    For many years, competencies have been used effectively in both the private and public sectors. They play a key role in organizational development and improvement by articulating the capabilities required for individual and organizational performance. Competencies serve as a solid foundation for human capital areas such as recruitment and hiring of talent, job assessment, employee development and training, performance management, career planning, and succession planning. Depending on the organization’s choice, it can choose to apply competencies to all of these human capital areas or some of them. Competencies may be incorporated into position descriptions, interview guides, hiring criteria and methods, assessment processes, individual development plans (IDPs), performance management processes, and employee development opportunities, e.g. training.

  • Q: What if there is not enough funding for training? What are other development activities?


    Training is only one option out of several development activities for an employee. Other activities that can help employees develop their level of proficiency in a competency include, but are not limited to:

    • reading/studying
    • being coached/mentored
    • shadowing
    • participating in a committee/group
    • developing SOPs
    • completing special project(s)
    • leading special project(s)
    • conducting/presenting at seminars
    • leading training sessions
    • leading or chairing a committee/group
    • volunteering as a mediator
    • coaching/mentoring
  • Q: How were the Proficiency Maps developed?


    The maps for the occupation-specific competency models were developed by focus groups that consisted of top performers in their occupational areas. The maps were then reviewed and confirmed by an NIH HR Classification Specialist. The maps for the administrative leadership and management models were developed by a focus group of the NIH leaders and reviewed and confirmed by the HR Branch Chiefs and an HR Classification Specialist.

  • Q: What is the next step after I assess my level on the NIH proficiency scale?


    After you assess your level on the NIH proficiency scale, your supervisor should also assess your level. Then, you and your supervisor should discuss the assessments and establish an action plan or IDP that documents the steps you should take to continue to develop your proficiency level.

  • Q: How do I assess my proficiency level of any particular competency?


    First read the definition of the competency and the key behaviors that describe how employees may demonstrate that competency. Then review the proficiency scale and familiarize yourself with the different levels. You will want to consider they ways that you have recently demonstrated that competency and select the most applicable proficiency level. It is suggested to also record your thoughts in the comments section while completing your assessment.

  • Q: What is a competency model?


    A competency model is a collection of competencies - often organized into categories or clusters - considered pertinent to an organization and a particular function within an organization (e.g. occupational series, position, etc). Individual competencies are usually defined and supported by key behaviors. Models may be general and apply to all employees, while other models may apply to specific occupations or positions. At NIH the Core competency model relates to all NIH employees, in administrative positions. The Leadership and Management competency model is relevant for all administrative positions with supervisory and/or managerial responsibilities. Occupation specific competency models are for all employees within a specific occupational series as suggested competencies. Not every competency in the occupation specific model may be relevant to an individual’s position.

    At NIH all competencies include a definition and key behaviors along with a proficiency scale.

  • Q: What are competencies?


    Competencies are the knowledge, skills, abilities, and behaviors that contribute to individual and organizational performance.  Knowledge is information developed or learned through experience, study or investigation.  Skill is the result of repeatedly applying knowledge or ability.  Ability is an innate potential to perform mental and physical actions or tasks.  Behavior is the observable reaction of an individual to a certain situation.  The target proficiency level for each competency will vary based on an individual’s position and the organization’s needs.

  • Q: What are key behaviors?


    The key behaviors are observable or measurable actions that demonstrate an employee possesses a particular competency. The key behaviors are examples, they are not an all-inclusive list of the multitude of ways that an individual may express a competency.  They should be used to add clarity and examples of the observable behavior.  For instance, a key behavior for the Administrative Officer financial management competency is “establishes and maintains realistic budgets.”

  • Q: How can NIH supervisors and employees use competencies?


    NIH supervisors and employees can review the competency models and proficiency maps to identify competencies that employees may want to develop. Then, employees and supervisors can develop a plan for increasing competency levels. The training maps may be helpful in selecting appropriate training, although it is also suggested that the employee’s plan include other activities, e.g., assignments and projects, mentoring, coaching, etc.

  • Q: What is the NIH proficiency scale?


    The NIH proficiency scale describes an individual’s level of proficiency in a particular competency. It describes the degree to which an employee possesses a competency and is the same for all competencies. The scale ranges from proficiency levels 1-5:

    • NA - Not Applicable
    • 1 - Fundamental Awareness (basic knowledge)
    • 2 - Novice (limited experience)
    • 3 - Intermediate (practical application)
    • 4 - Advanced (applied theory)
    • 5 - Expert (recognized authority)

    Each level in the proficiency scale has a detailed description to help identify an employee’s level of proficiency.

  • Q: How can NIH employees use competencies to develop their career?


    Employees can review the competency models and use the proficiency maps to determine developmental opportunities. Employees should discuss with their supervisors the plan for increasing their proficiency levels. This plan could include activities such as performing special projects and assignments, training, shadowing, etc. In addition, employees who would like to change careers can review the competency models for other occupations to understand which competencies they need to develop.

  • Q: What is the NIH Proficiency Map?


    The NIH Proficiency Map links GS grade levels to target proficiency levels for each competency in the suggested occupational and leadership and management models.  These maps serve as a guide to understanding the expected proficiency level of top performers at each grade level. The NIH Proficiency Map can be found at this location.

  • Q: How were NIH competency models developed?


    NIH employees developed the competency models. The Core, Leadership, and Management models were developed by a group of AO and EO leaders, using models of other organizations as a starting point. Focus groups of top performers in each of the occupational areas developed the occupational models. Some ICs also have developed additional core and leadership competencies and even different or additional administrative occupational competencies.

  • Q: What does it mean if I do not meet the target proficiency level?


    If you do not meet a specific target proficiency level, it may indicate that you should focus your development efforts on this particular competency.  However, there are also other factors that will affect your development efforts, such as organizational priorities, team needs, etc.  Therefore, you should obtain guidance from your supervisor to discuss the highest priority competencies for development.

  • Q: What competency models has NIH developed?


    NIH has developed competency models in some of the most common roles performed across ICs. These roles consist of competencies that fall within the following areas: non-technical, technical, leadership & management, and executive level proficiencies.

    Non-technical competencies represent the sets of knowledge, skills, abilities, and behaviors that apply to all NIH employees. Technical competencies are occupation-related competencies that apply to all employees within a specific business area. The leadership & management competencies apply to all employees with supervisory responsibilities in administrative occupations. The executive level proficiencies are based on OPM’S Executive Core Qualifications for the Senior Executive Service (SES).

    The suggested competency models provide guidance on the expected performance needed by NIH employees in different occupational areas.

  • Q: How can employees increase their proficiency levels?


    This can be done in many ways.  For example, employees may take formal training to help build their proficiency levels.  Employees may participate in developmental assignments on the job or on a detail to another job, read articles and books, participate in activities of a professional organization, take e-learning courses, be coached, be mentored, etc.

  • Q: What is an Individual Development Plan (IDP) and how does it relate to competencies, performance, and promotions?


    An Individual Development Plan (IDP) outlines career goals within the context of organizational objectives. It is a developmental "action" plan to move employees from where they are to where they would like to be or need to be. It provides systematic steps to improve performance and build on strengths related to one’s current job, and to meet one’s career goals. The goals of an IDP are developed by the employee with input from the supervisor. The IDP links the individual's career interests and needs to organizational priorities. IDPs are used to help employees:

    • Learn new skills to improve current job performance;
    • Maximize current performance in support of organizational requirements;
    • Increase interest, challenges, and satisfaction in current position; and
    • Obtain competencies that can help lead to career changes.

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